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Yurt Dışında Avukata İhtiyacım Var Ama Nasıl?
Terör Olayları Düşen Cirolar ve Yüksek AVM Kiraları
Company Types and Registration In Turkey
Real Estate Purchase in U.S.A.
Foreign country citizen's (real persons') real estate purchases in Turkey

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Buying A Real Estate In Turkey
Buying A Real Estate in U.S.A.
Company registration in Turkey
International Lawyering
Kira Hukuku
Yurt Dışı Yatırım/KOBİ
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Yurt Dışında Avukata İhtiyacım Var Ama Nasıl?

Peki ama yurt dışında bana yardımcı olacak doğru avukatı nasıl bulacağım ki????

Düşündünüz taşındınız yurt dışında bir yatırım yapmaya karar verdiniz. Bu yatırım, yurt dışında size oturum izni de sağlayacak bir taşınmaz almak da olabilir, yıllardır sektörel fuarlarınızda konuşup, flört ettiğiniz şu Alman firma ile bir ortak girişim kurmak ya da İtalya’da birkaç mağazası olan nicedir göz koyduğunuz ve artık uygun bir fiyata alabileceğinize inandığınız bir şirketi satın almak da olabilir. Peki o yabancı “el”lerde doğru ekibi nasıl kuracaksınız?

Yıllardır işinizi yürüttüğünüz, geniş çevreniz olan kendi ülkenizde bile konusunda uzman, tecrübeli, dilinizden anlayan doğru avukatı bulmak bir sorunken Milano’da, Stuttgart’ta, Selanik’te ve hatta okyanusun öteki tarafında Boston’da ve hadi abartalım Tokyo’da doğru avukatı nasıl bulacaksınız? Bulsanız dahi o karmaşık hukuk dili, işin içine bir de başka bir lisan girince iyice karışmayacak mı? Ya bu işin bütçesi ne olacak? Yurt dışında sonucu kestirilemeyen korkutucu saat ücretlerinden mi bahsediliyor?

Biz tam olarak bu işi yapıyoruz. 20 yıla yakın süredir pek çok ülkedeki operasyonlarında yerli KOBİ’lere, İstanbul’daki ofisimizden, Türkçe konuşarak hukuk hizmetleri sunuyoruz.

Bu çerçevede son olarak Mayıs ayında Türkiye İhracatçılar Meclisi (“TİM”) ile çalışmaya başladık. 2010/6 Sayılı Yurt Dışı Birim Marka Ve Tanıtım Faaliyetlerinin Desteklenmesi Hakkında Tebliğ kapsamında TİM’in tüm yurt dışı operasyonlarında hukuki alt yapı hizmetleri veriyoruz. TİM, tebliğ kapsamında açacağı Türk Ticaret Merkezi’nin hukuk işleri için, ilgili ülkede konusunda uzman avukat arayışına girme, mevzuatı anlamaya çalışma zahmetine girmeksizin, sadece bizimle muhatap olarak şirket kuruluşu, vergi numarası alınması, banka hesapları açılışı, taşınmazlar kiralanması, satın alınması, personel istihdamı ve gerekli her türlü sözleşmelerin akdedilmesi işlerini bizimle yürütüyor.

TİM dışında bireysel ve kurumsal pek çok müvekkile küçük, büyük yurt dışı operasyonlarında hızlı, bütçenizi baştan belirleyebildiğiniz, tüm sürecin anlaşılabilir dilde açıklandığı ve sizin dilinizi konuşan çözümler sunuyoruz.

Aktif olduğumuz ülkeler ve sizin için yapabileceklerimizle ilgili ayrıntılı bilgi için lütfen bizimle irtibat kurmaktan çekinmeyin.

Terör Olayları Düşen Cirolar ve Yüksek AVM Kiraları

Terör Olayları Düşen Cirolar ve Yüksek AVM Kiraları
Geçen Perşembe akşamüzeri, çok sevdiğim ve uzun süredir hukuk danışmanlığını yaptığımız perakende moda sektöründe tanınmış bir firmanın sahibi bir arkadaşımla İstinyepark’ta buluşup sohbet ettik. Ülkemizde yaşanan bu sıkıntılı dönemde doğal olarak insanların dışarı çıkmaya çekindiklerinden ve bunun ekonomik etkilerinden konuştuk. Sonrasını biliyorsunuz, Cumartesi sabahı Beyoğlu’nda maalesef hepimizi çok üzen bir terör olayı daha meydana geldi ve maçlardan konserlere kadar pek çok etkinlik iptal edildi, hepimiz bütün bir hafta sonu fiili bir sokağa çıkma yasağı yaşadık. Bu tedirginliğin daha ne kadar süreceğini kestirmek ise maalesef çok zor.
Yaşanan bu çok üzücü olayların doğal olarak ekonomik etkileri ve sonuçları da oluyor. Aynı arkadaşım Cumartesi günkü patlamadan sonra bana mesaj atarak Türkiye’nin dört bir yanındaki AVM’lerde yer alan onlarca mağazasının cirolarının son birkaç aydır yaşanan terör olayları nedeni ile çok düştüğünden, artık bu son patlama ile birlikte özellikle yüksek kira bedelleri ödenen AVM’lerde var olmanın çok güçleştiğinden dem vurarak bu konuda hukuken yapılabilecek bir şey olup olmadığını sordu. Biz çok uzun yıllardır kira hukuku konusunda çalışıyoruz, yoğunluklu olarak kiracıları temsil ediyor olmakla birlikte son birkaç yıldır İstanbul’da yer alan bir AVM’nin danışmanlığını yaparak kiraya veren tarafında da yer alıyoruz ki bu da bence bizim perspektifimizin gelişmesine ciddi katkı sağlıyor. Bu kapsamda arkadaşımın gündeme getirdiği konunun pek çok perakendecinin gündeminde olduğunu biliyorduk ve belki bu konuda bir beyin fırtınası yapmak yararlı olabilir.
Siz de arkadaşım gibi uzun yıllardır cadde ve AVM mağazalarında pek çok mağazada faaliyet gösteren bir iş insanı iseniz bir mahkeme kararı ile önceden kararlaştırılmış kira bedellerinin kimi zaman kiraya verenin, kimi zaman kiracının lehine olarak değiştirilebildiğine şahit olmuşsunuzdur. Özellikle 2000’li yılların başında, bir gecede dolar kurunun fırlaması ile bu tür uyarlama davaları mahkemeleri çokça meşgul etmişti. Bu çerçevede “uyarlama talepleri”, “işlem temelinin çökmesi” gibi bir kısım hukuki terimler mutlaka sizin de kulağınıza çalınmıştır.  Ben karmaşık hukuki terim ve süreçlerle sizi sıkmayacağım ancak 01.07.2012 tarihinde yürürlüğe giren yeni Borçlar Kanununun (önceki düzenlememizde bulunmayan) 138.maddesinin –elbette belirli koşulların bulunması halinde- kira bedellerinin kiracı lehine uyarlanmasına destek olarak kullanılabileceğini belirtmekte fayda var. İlgili madde gereğince;
-           Sözleşmenin yapıldığı sırada, taraflarca öngörülmeyen ve öngörülmesi de beklenmeyen olağanüstü bir durum ortaya çıkmış,
-          Bu durum kiracıdan kaynaklanmamış,
-          Bu durum, sözleşmenin yapıldığı sırada mevcut olguları, kendisinden ifanın istenmesini dürüstlük kurallarına aykırı düşecek derecede kiracı aleyhine değiştirmiş,
-          Kiracı, borcunu henüz ifa etmemiş veya ifanın aşırı ölçüde güçleşmesinden doğan haklarını saklı tutarak ifa etmiş olmalıdır.
Hukuki terim kullanmayacağım dediğim halde kullanmış oldum değil mi? Peki, daha basit bir dille bugün yaşanan terör olayları nedeni ile cironuzun olağanüstü ölçüde düşmüş olduğu esas alınarak bu olağanüstü süre ile sınırlı olarak kira sözleşmesine hakimin müdahale ederek kira bedellerinin lehinize uyarlanmasını (daha açık dille kira bedellerinin indirilmesini) talep etmeniz düşünülebilir. Burada bahsettiğim 138. madde sadece 3.5 yıldır mevzuatımızda bulunuyor, dolayısıyla bu konuda elimizde çok fazla emsal karar yok. Öte yandan bundan önceki mevzuat dönemindeki emsal kararlar ise yoğunluklu olarak döviz kurundaki ani ve beklenmedik artışların döviz üzerinden anlaşılmış kira sözleşmelerine etkisi ile ilgili dolayısıyla terör olayları nedeni ile yaşananların esas alınarak 138. maddenin uygulanmasını talep etmek an itibari ile bilebildiğim kadarı ile uygulaması ve örneği olan bir yol değil. Ancak unutmamak gerekir ki emsaller de bu şekilde oluşturuluyor zaten. Dolayısıyla bu konuda emsal oluşturmak için doğru bir zamanda olabiliriz. Öte yandan lütfen aklınızda bulunsun hukukta herkes için tek bir çözüm yolu yok, çözüm üretebilmek için dikkatli ve usta bir terzi gibi her duruma özel çalışma yapmamız gerekiyor. Bu çerçevede burada bahsedilen 138.maddenin lehinize uygulanıp uygulanamayacağını ya da ne şekilde uygulanabileceğini anlayabilmek için mutlaka sizin sözleşme maddelerinizin, sözleşme sürenizin ve durumunuzun ayrıntılı olarak incelenerek ortaya konması gerekir.
 

Company Types and Registration In Turkey

Information on Forms of Companies
There are two main forms of companies according to Turkish Law.
 
Joint Stock Company : The company’s stock capital is divided into shares and the liability of the share holders is restricted with the capital subscribed by the shareholder. Sole shareholder (real person or legal entity) is possible and minimum capital of 50.000 TL is mandatory.
According to the current Turkish Trade Law, banks, private finance institutions, insurance companies, financial leasing companies, factoring companies, holding companies, companies operating as foreign currency exchange offices, companies dealing with public warehousing, publicly held companies subject to the Capital Markets Law, companies that are founders and operators of free zones should be established as Joint Stock Associations and these companies are still subject to permit from Ministry of Industry and Trade for their foundations.
 
Limited Company: It is the company established with participation of minimum 1 and maximum 50 real person or legal entities. The liability of the shareholders is restricted only to the capital subscribed by the shareholder however representatives and shareholders could be held liable personally concerning uncollected public debts (e.g. social security premiums, taxes and etc.) of the company. Minimum capital of 10,000 TL is mandatory. Unlike Joint stock companies no stock certificate is issued.


In both types of companies the shareholders could be real persons or legal entities where majority or even all shareholders could be foreigners.

The incorporation process is briefly as below;


1. Drafting the Articles of Association according to specific needs of the shareholders,

2. Notarisation of the Articles of Association


3.1/4 of the capital in cash has to be transferred prior to registration,

4. Application to the Trade Registry Office, Registry and Announcement

5. Notarization of the Signature Circular of the Company:

6. Application to the Tax Office

Please note that a permanent seat (Address) for the company is obligatory for the establishment of the company and we are able to provide a “virtual office” or "flexible" office solutions for the Company upon your request.

 
Please also note that,  accounting is obligatory once the company is incorporated even if the company is not active and we are able to provide you accounting solutions.

Please contact us for details including estimated timeline and costs together with list of needed documents for incorporation of a company in Turkey.

Real Estate Purchase in U.S.A.

Through our strong links we are able to assist clients wishing to purchase real property or start a business in more than 20 jurisdictions over the world.
Please find brief information on investing in real property in the U.S. Please do not hesitate contacting us should you need more information.

 
Introduction
The real estate market in the United States has made strong indications of recovery following the “bubble” and “crash” of the market in the previous decade.  Accordingly, investment in real estate has reestablished its popularity among United States citizens and international buyers alike. According to the National Association of Realtors, international buyers purchased approximately $104 billion in United States residential real estate from April 2014 through March 2015, across all 50 states. Property sales in the United States to foreign buyers amount to approximately 8 percent of total existing home sales in dollar volume. Whether a prospective buyer is an international investor, a “snowbird,” or a first-generation immigrant living in the United States, purchasing in an unfamiliar market can be daunting.
Unlike some countries which only allow real estate sales to those with citizenship in the country, the United States treats sales of real estate to foreigners essentially identically as sales to citizens. Some limitations may be imposed by homeowners associations, condominium associations, cooperatives, or other forms of community associations. For example, Housing cooperatives, or “co-ops,” often have rules prohibiting foreign ownership by generally requiring that a buyer's source of income be from the United States and that the majority of the buyer's assets be kept in the United States.
Buying real estate in the United States does not give foreign owners any rights or privileges regarding legal stay or status. A person interested in staying in the states longer than allowed by a standard visa, should contact an immigration lawyer.
The manner in which United States real estate transactions are carried out may differ from a buyer’s home country. Each state in the United States has its own set of rules regarding the purchase of real estate, including the type of purchase and sale contract used, the method of closing the sale, and the duties and titles of the individuals involved. Foreign investors can purchase property directly in their own names, or through some sort of business entity, such as a domestic corporation, foreign corporation, limited partnership, joint venture, real estate investment trust, or limited liability company.
Financing
It is possible for a foreign buyer to obtain financing for a purchase. However, foreigners are more likely to pay higher interest rates and be required to make larger down payments. Qualified foreign buyers with a 30 to 40 percent down payment can often obtain financing for their United States real estate purchases. Lenders may also require foreign buyers to have a specific minimum amount on deposit with the bank or may set loan limits. This is due to the relative risk inherent when lending to a foreign buyer, such as obstacles to serving the buyer with legal process and accessibility to a foreign buyer’s assets, in the event of default on a loan.
Process and Requirements
The basic sale transaction for real estate property consists of the buyer and seller entering into a purchase and sale agreement, or contract, which outlines the terms of the sale, such as price, terms and details of the transaction, and the closing date. As part of the process, a title search is also performed, which is the process of retrieving documents evidencing events in the history of real property to determine relevant interests in and regulations concerning that property. The closing date is when legal title to the property is delivered from the seller to the buyer. The legal transfer of ownership is by way of a deed, usually executed at closing. The buyer is commonly responsible for paying for the title search and insurance, legal fees, and recording fees, which typically amounts to approximately 1 to 2.5 percent of the total price of the property. 
A foreign buyer will need an Individual Taxpayer Identification Number (ITIN), which is a tax-processing number assigned to foreign nationals who are required to have a United States taxpayer identification number, but do not have one and are ineligible for Social Security numbers. Depending on the buyer’s nationality, the buyer may also need a valid foreign passport, visa, and two or more current photo identifications, such as a driver's license.
A buyer may wish to attend the closing in person, but it is not necessary. If the buyer cannot or chooses not to attend the closing, the buyer may execute a "Power of Attorney." A Power of Attorney is a written document authorizing another person to represent the buyer at the closing and sign all necessary documents on the buyer’s behalf. Alternatively, some transactions are conducted by way of a “mail away” closing, whereby the necessary documents are executed, exchanged, and returned between the parties, all via mail.
Tax Implications
A foreign property owners' tax liability in his home country will vary depending upon where the purchaser is from and whether that country has a tax treaty with the United States. The Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act of 1980 (“FIRPTA”) is a United States law governing the withholding of income tax when property is sold, exchanged, gifted, transferred, or liquidated by a foreign person. The Internal Revenue Service withholds 10 percent of the proceeds of the transaction, which may also be subject to withholding by the state.
The United States government requires that foreign nationals pay federal income taxes on any net income (rental revenues less expenses) received from rental property. Certain deductions are allowed to reduce tax liability, such as mortgage interest, common charges, property taxes, and depreciation. If tax returns are not filed in a timely fashion, a tax of 30 percent of the gross rental income may be assessed. Such income may also be subject to taxation by the state government.
 

Foreign country citizen's (real persons') real estate purchases in Turkey

Basic scope of foreign real persons' real estate purchases in Turkey could be summarized as follows:

1.      Legal Basis:

In accordance with the Article 35 of the Land Registry Law No. 2644, amended by Law No. 6302, which entered into force on 18 May 2012, the reciprocity rule in foreigners’ real estate purchases has been abolished.
Foreign country citizens can buy any kind of property (house, business place, land, field) within the legal restrictions.
 
2.      Format of the Contract:

According to the Turkish laws and regulations in force, transfer of ownership of a property is only possible with an official deed and registry which is signed at the Land Registry Directorates.
It is possible to sign a “promise to sell agreement” before a notary. Such an agreement entitles the buyer to force the owner to transfer of title of deed when the conditions in the agreement are met.
 
 
3.      Legal Restrictions for Foreigners in Buying Property:

a)      Foreign country citizens can buy maximum 30 hectares of property in Turkey in total and can acquire limited in rem right.
b)      Foreigners cannot acquire or rent property within military forbidden zones and security zones.
c)      Foreign country citizens can acquire property or limited in rem right in a district/town up to 10 % of the total area of the said district/town.
d)     Legal restrictions do not apply in setting mortgage for real persons and commercial companies having legal personality which are established in foreign countries.

4.      Application and Procedure:

Buyer should be from the country whose citizens can acquire property or limited in rem right in Turkey and meet the necessary conditions.

Application:
The owner of the property or his/her authorized representative should make a preliminary application to the Land Registry Directorate.
If the preliminary application is incomplete, the file will be kept waiting.

5.  Financial Aspect of the Procedure:

a)      Both seller and buyer have to pay the title deed fee, calculated according to the selling price which cannot be less than the “Property Statement Value” to be issued by the relevant municipality. (According to the Charges Law No:492, the title deed fee percentage for each side of the transaction for 2014 is   2% [4 % in total].)

b)      Circulating capital fee which is determined locally has to be paid. (Maximum 73x2.5 TL for 2014.)

c)      At the stage when the Land Registry Directorate inquires with the relevant military authorities whether the property is located within a military or special zone, circulating capital fee for the map prepared by the Cadastre Directorate has to be paid. (336 TL for 2014)
 
  
6.  Due Diligence:

We strongly recommend that a basic due diligence of the property be performed before the transfer of title of deed where such due diligence shall cover the crosscheck of the following:
-          ownership of the property,
-          limitations on property (attachments, mortgages and etc.)
-          in conformity with zoning laws,
-          property taxes,
-          Licenses.

7. Transaction

Please note that with a power of attorney issued on our name we are able to represent the client in all of the above steps and finalize the  transfer of title of deed where the client is not obliged to be present during proceedings.

Challenges in International Communication III

Eye Contact  
 
In some cultures eye contact is believed to be essential for good communication. In contrast, especially in the Far East, for some cultures this is not the case. So a client from Tokyo may not look directly into our eyes while we present an important legal issue but that does not necessarily mean that he or she is not paying attention to what we are talking about.
 
 
Personal Space And Touch
 
 
In Northern Europe and Northern America for example people usually leave a space between themselves when interacting. Business people do not touch each other. In the Mediterranean region on the other hand even business people get closer and people do not need to be friends or family members to touch each other.
 
Ethnocentrism
 
When I was a small child if I behaved badly to a friend my mother would tell me “Do not do unto others what you would not want them to do to you.” This code of behaviour sounds absolutely correct and it has been a golden rule throughout my life but be careful, this rule does not work in intercultural communication. This is a kind of ethnocentrism.
 
Ethnocentrism can be defined as “viewing the whole world only through one’s eyes with one’s belief.” This is a trap that we all have to be careful to avoid. We all have to be aware that the client may have a different background and we have to be honest to ourselves that we may have some prejudices. If we cannot manage to overcome these prejudices we have to learn to control them.
 
 
The golden rule to achieve an efficient intercultural communication is “increasing empathy” but the challenge in increasing empathy in intercultural communication is we have to have some idea about the other party’s background and culture. When I meet with a client whose culture I am not very familiar with I read up on not only the possible legal issues that we are going to discuss but also try to collect as much information as I can prior to the meeting. The Internet can be a very useful source for this.
 
Stereotyping
 
Stereotyping can be defined as “generalizing a group based on some prior assumptions.” If I believe “all Americans are know-alls, they think they know everything.” or “all Iraqis love guns” or “Italian clients always try to find a way not pay to lawyers fees.” (This is valid for Turkish clients by the wayJ) then I forget that we (including the clients) are individuals that whatever group we belong to we may have different values. Stereotyping is something very dangerous for lawyers because if we start stereotyping then we start forgetting that each client is an individual.  And if we start forgetting that each client is an individual then we start forgetting that whatever we are doing for each client is unique. No two deals can be identical, there is and there should always be a personal touch in each issue we are dealing with.
 
Cultural Imperialism
 
 
We are all brought up in a certain culture and it is not unnatural that deep in our hearts we may believe that our culture is better than the others but let me tell you a secret no culture is superior to the other. Such prejudice may lead what is called a “horizontal dialogue”. In a horizontal dialogue parties are not equal, one party is “higher” than the other party. The most efficient dialogue is “vertical dialogue” where parties are equal and no one is superior to the other.
 

Challenges in International Communication II

Different Approach To Lawyers
 
 
Clients from different cultures may have different ways of working with lawyers. For example most people in Western country want their lawyers to be with them from the very beginning. I personally also believe that this is the way it should be but on the other hand we know that in some cultures, especially in the east, the attitude is “you do not need to contact a lawyer till everything is messed up.” or “call the lawyer at the very last minute just for formalities sake.”  It has happened to us.  We’ve come face-to-face with a 50-page contract that we have never seen before, emailed to us for revision and with just 30 minutes for us to share our detailed comments! And to be honest I do not know how to overcome this “inter-cultural problem”.
 
 
Foreign Investors’ Limited Initiative
 
 
The foreign direct investments of multinational companies very often appear to be separate affiliate companies registered in that foreign country. Although these companies have their own directors, managers and organization because they are “affiliates” the directors and managers may not have the initiative to take important decisions. It is for this reason that we have to be careful about timing. We have to notify the client as early as possible so that they would have the time to consult to the headquarters.
 
 
Foreigners Do Not Know What We Know About Our Law And Legal System
 
 
Law itself is a part of the culture and the client may think that the legal system is or should be more or less the same in a different country. This may not be only a client-centred mistake, it is possible for a lawyer to have a similar view. When dealing with a local client usually we do not bother emphasizing the widely known legal basis and instead we simply jump to the conclusion because we assume that the client is aware of the basics of the legal system. However, the situation with the foreign client may be (and often is), totally different. When assisting the client we have to make sure that he or she understands why we are doing things that way but not the other. We have to be patient in explaining the ABC of our legal system so that we can communicate better. For example, there are some routine but important things that we all do. Normally a local client would know when and what to do in such routine situations however a chief legal counsel sitting at the headquarters of a multinational corporation dealing with issues concerning their investments in China, Italy, Germany, and U.S.A. may not be aware of or recall some procedures that have to be carried out Turkey. We do experience instances where multinational Companies forget and or cannot understand why certain routine work is important. So what we do is even if for a routine and basic task we always start with a simple one paragraph explanation on local law, try to outline very briefly the highlights and then in the second paragraph we ask for the required documents.
 

Challenges In International Communication

 
 
Language
 
 
In verbal communication language is the biggest challenge. It does happen very often that a foreign language is the common communication language of the client and the lawyer but that language is a “foreign language” to both of them. I am communicating with clients from Germany, Italy, Qatar, Korea, Israel and our common language is English. For sure our vocabulary is limited, compared to our mother tongues and sometimes we give different meanings to the very same word.  We, therefore, have to search for the real meaning of what the client is saying. What I do is to ask open ended questions to confirm that I really understand the client’s needs correctly. I push the client to tell me the story from the very beginning and spend really more time with patience, compared to a local client, to understand the whole picture. Language is a barrier not only in client/lawyer communication but also in business communication of both parties. Sometimes we see that a client and the other party, with total good faith, believe that they agree on something but actually they both mean different things. So actually there is no agreement. Therefore a deal lawyer has to search for the real meaning of not only what the client is saying but also what the other party is saying.
 
 
Recently, a few months ago we were approached by a Korean Company seeking legal assistance in a specific matter. Their investment in Turkey is a partnership with some local Turkish Companies so there are Turkish members on the board of the Company but the majority of the shares and therefore the majority of the seats on the board belong to the Koreans. At first we had a meeting with the Korean clients and during the meeting we were very confident that we understood the problem clearly and that we had the ability to provide them with an effective solution. We were told that they were very much satisfied and the solution we were proposing was also exactly what the Turkish partners were looking for. Later on one of the Turkish board members who was informed about our meeting with the Korean clients called me on the phone and told me totally a different story. We were very much confused and realised that there was almost no communication between the Koreans and their local partners. So we proposed to meet with the Turkish and Korean parties together and what we saw was that some of the Turkish board members did not speak a word of English, they only spoke Turkish. The other Turkish board members spoke some English, but could not be described as fluent and it was this group who had taken on the task of translating what the Koreans were saying for the non-English speakers. Naturally the result was that nobody understood anybody properly but all sides believed that they were in agreement.